Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
The title page should include:
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- A concise and informative title
- The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
- The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author
Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
■ Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
■ Use italics for emphasis.
■ Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
■ Do not use field functions.
■ Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
■ Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
■ Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
■ Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.
LaTeX macro package
Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.
Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
■ Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
■ This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
■ This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.
■ Journal article Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8 Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted: Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
■ Article by DOI Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086
■ Book South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
■ Book chapter Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
■ Online document Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
■ Dissertation Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
Electronic Figure Submission
■ Supply all figures electronically.
■ Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
■ For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
· Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
■ Name your figure files with "“Fig"” and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
■ All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
■ Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
■ Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
■ If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, “A1, A2, A3, etc.” Figures in online appendices (Electronic supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.
■ Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
■ Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
■ No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
■ Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
■ Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
■ When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
■ For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
■ For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80 mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
■ All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
■ Patterns are used instead or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
■ Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.
Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice, offprints, or printing of figures in color. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink.
Springer Open Choice [http://springer.com/openchoice]
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
· Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (SI units).
· Please use the standard mathematical notation for formulae, symbols etc.: Italic for single letters that denote mathematical constants, variables, and unknown quantities Roman/upright for numerals, operators, and punctuation, and commonly defined functions or abbreviations, e.g., cos, det, e or exp, lim, log, max, min, sin, tan, d (for derivative) Bold for vectors, tensors, and matrices.
Manuscripts submitted for publication must contain a statement to the effect that all human and animal studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. It should also be stated clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under study should be omitted.
The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
Conflict of interest
Authors must indicate whether or not they have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. They should also state that they have full control of all primary data and that they agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested.
Therefore the manuscript must be accompanied by the “Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form”. To download this form, please follow the hyperlink on the right.
Springer Editorial Policy
Springer follows the guidelines developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics. We provide a Guide on Publishing Ethics that helps with implementing these guidelines. The Guide contains practical guidance to Journal Editors and Society & Publishing Partners and helps to manage the repercussions arising from publishing work which could be in breach with the codes of conduct.
The Guide can be found at
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which includes:
■ The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
■ The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
■ A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
■ No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions.
■ No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the authors own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
■ Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
■ Consent to submit has been received from all co-authors and responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out before the work is submitted.
■ Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
■ Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
■ Requests to add or delete authors at revision stage or after publication is a serious matter, and may be considered only after receipt of written approval from all authors and detailed explanation about the role/deletion of the new/deleted author. The decision on accepting the change rests with the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.
■ Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been proven, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
■ If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
■ If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or
■ The author’s institution may be informed.
Double-blind peer review
This journal follows a double-blind reviewing procedure. Authors are therefore requested to submit:
■ A blinded manuscript without any author names and affiliations in the text or on the title page. Self-identifying citations and references in the article text should be avoided.
■ A separate title page, containing title, all author names, affiliations, and the contact information of the corresponding author. Any acknowledgements, disclosures, or funding information should also be included on this page.
Manuscripts that are accepted for publication will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style. This may not be sufficient if English is not your native language and substantial editing would be required. In that case, you may want to ask a native speaker to help you or arrange for your manuscript to be checked by a professional language editor prior to submission. A clear and concise language will help editors and reviewers concentrate on the scientific content of your paper and thus smooth the peer review process.
· For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
· All tables are to be numbered by Arabic numerals
·Tables should be always cited in text in consecutive numerical order
· For each table, please supply a table caption (title) to explaining the content of the table.
· For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
■ Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
■ Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.