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Vertical records are critically important when determining the rupture model of an earthquake, especially a thrust earthquake. Due to the relatively low fitness level of near-field vertical displacements, the precision of previous rupture models is relatively low, and the seismic hazard evaluated thereafter should be further updated. In this study, we applied three-component displacement records from GPS stations in and around the source region of the 2013 MW6.6 Lushan earthquake to re-investigate the rupture model. To improve the resolution of the rupture model, records from both continuous and campaign GPS stations were gathered, and secular deformations of the GPS movements were removed from the records of the campaign stations to ensure their reliability. The rupture model was derived by the steepest descent method (SDM), which is based on a layered velocity structure. The peak slip value was about 0.75 m, with a seismic moment release of 9.89 × 1018 N·m, which was equivalent to an MW6.6 event. The inferred fault geometry coincided well with the aftershock distribution of the Lushan earthquake. Unlike previous rupture models, a secondary slip asperity existed at a shallow depth and even touched the ground surface. Based on the distribution of the co-seismic ruptures of the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes, post-seismic relaxation of the Wenchuan earthquake, and tectonic loading process, we proposed that the seismic hazard is quite high and still needs special attention in the seismic gap between the two earthquakes.
The focal mechanism solution on the seismic fault plane can reflect the geometric and kinematic characteristics of faults, and it is an important way to further study the fine structure of fault plane. From the focal mechanism solution of the earthquakes around the Dujiangyan fault in Longmenshan fault zone, we derived the average dip angle of Dujiangyan fault is 45.1° based on the seismic moment tensor theory. In order to refine the fault geometry structure, this paper decomposed it into multiple sub-fault planes along the length and width of the fault plane and forms a number of models A13, B13, A23a, A23b, A23c, B23a, B23b and B23c, then calculated the sub-fault’s dip of each model. In order to clarify exactly which one of the fault models is closest to the real fault model, the fault slip was carried out for each model in turn, then compared the surface displacement of each model with GPS observations. The results show that B23c model with high dip in shallow and small dip in deep is the best model, the lengths of each sub-fault of Dujiangyan fault from south to north are 33 km, 21 km and 46 km, respectively. When the depth of the fault bottom is about 11 km, the dip angles are 70.56°, 67.41° and 45.55°. When the depth of the fault bottom is about 30 km, The fault dip angles are 44.55°, 29.18° and 44.25°.
The time-history responses of the surface were obtained for a linear elastic half-plane including regularly distributed enormous embedded circular cavities subjected to propagating obliquely incident plane SH-waves. An advanced numerical approach named half-plane time-domain boundary element method (BEM), which only located the meshes around the cavities, was used to create the model. By establishing the modified boundary integral equation (BIE) independently for each cavity and forming the matrices, the final coupled equation was solved step-by-step in the time-domain to obtain the boundary values. The responses were developed for a half-plane with 512 cavities. The amplification patterns were also obtained to illustrate the frequency-domain responses for some cases. According to the results, the presence of enormous cavities affects the scattering and diffraction of the waves arrived to the surface. The introduced method can be recommended for geotechnical/mechanical engineers to model structures in the fields of earthquake engineering and composite materials.
A closed-form wave equation analytic solution of two-dimensional scattering and diffraction of out-of-plane (SH) waves by an almost semi-circular shallow cylindrical hill on a flat, elastic and homogeneous half space is proposed by applying the discrete Fourier series expansions of sine and cosine functions. The semi-circular hill problem is discussed as a special case for the new formulated equation. Compared with the previous semi-circular cases solutions, the present method can give surface displacement amplitudes which agrees well with previous results. Although the proposed equation can only solve the problem of SH-waves diffracted by almost semi-circular shallow hills, the stress and displacement residual amplitudes are numerical insignificantly everywhere. Moreover, the influences of the depth-to-width ratio (a parameter defined in this paper to evaluate the shallowness of the topography of hills) on ground motions are presented and summarized. The limitations and errors of truncation from Graf’s addition theorem and Fourier series equations in the present paper are also discussed.
Techniques for soil property estimation can be categorized into two main groups, in-situ and laboratory methods. Previous investigations indicated that strong ground motions record provides a very useful tool to estimating the in-situ characteristics of soil. The main objective of the present work is to utilize the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA) integrated with linear site response method to obtain the equivalent soil profile characteristics from the available surface and bedrock earthquake motion records. To demonstrate the numerical efficiency and the validity of this approach, the procedure is validated against an available case. Then this procedure is utilized to identify the soil properties profiles of the site by using strong ground motions data recorded during the Bam earthquake of December 26, 2003. The magnitude and PGA of Bam earthquake were MW 6.6 and 0.8 g respectively.