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Many destructive earthquakes happened in Tehran, Iran in the last centuries. The existence of active faults like the North Tehran is the main cause of seismicity in this city. According to past investigations, it is estimated that in the scenario of activation of the North Tehran fault, many structures in Tehran will collapse. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the near field rupture directivity effects of this fault into the seismic hazard assessment of important sites in Tehran. In this study, using calculations coded in MATLAB, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is conducted for an important site in Tehran. Following that, deaggregation technique is performed on PSHA and the contribution of seismic scenarios to hazard is obtained in the range of distance and magnitude. After identifying the North Tehran fault as the most hazardous source affecting the site in 10000-year return period, rupture directivity effects of this fault is incorporated into the seismic hazard assessment using Somerville et al. (1997) model with broadband approach and Shahi and Baker (2011) model with narrowband approach. The results show that the narrowband approach caused a 27% increase in the peak of response spectrum in 10000-year return period compared with the conventional PSHA. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the near fault rupture directivity effects into the higher levels of seismic hazard assessment attributed to important sites.
Serial destructive earthquakes have caused heavy casualties and economic losses to the city in southwestern of China. The Ludian Ms 6.5 earthquake and the Jinggu Ms 6.6 earthquake occurred in Yunnan province in 2014. There is a question of why the two events with almost the same level of magnitude caused differences in earthquake damage. To understand the uniqueness of the phenomenon, this paper focuses on the characteristics of the ground motions and post-earthquake field investigation for the two events. Firstly, we present an overview of the residuals between the Ludian earthquake and the Jinggu earthquake based on the YW06 Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE), and explain the unusual destructiveness of the strong ground motion. Then we analyze the ground motion recordings at selected typical station, based on the strong motion parameters: equivalent predominant frequency and Arias intensity. The result exhibits a good agreement with the Chinese seismic intensity scale. This study would be helpful to gain a better knowledge of the characteristics and variability of ground motions for MS6 class earthquakes in China and to understand the implications to future earthquakes with similar focal mechanism and local condition.
Scattering and diffraction of elastic in-plane P- and SV-waves by a surface topography such as an elastic canyon at the surface of a half-space is a classical problem which has been studied by earthquake engineers and strong motion seismologists for over forty years. The case of out-of-plane SH-waves on the same elastic canyon that is semicircular in shape on the half-space surface is the first such problem that was solved by analytic closed-form solutions over forty years ago by Trifunac. The corresponding case of in-plane P- and SV-waves on the same circular canyon is a much more complicated problem because the in-plane P- and SV- scattered waves have different wave speeds and together they must have zero normal and shear stresses at the half-space surface. It is not until recently in 2014 that analytic solution for such problem is found by Lee and Liu. This paper uses their technique of defining these stress-free scattered waves, which Brandow and Lee previously used to solve the problem of the scattering and diffraction of these in-plane waves on an almost-circular surface canyon that is arbitrary in shape, to the study of the scattering and diffraction of these in-plane waves on an almost circular arbitrary-shaped alluvial valley.
In China, efforts are being made to monitor geoelectric fields through a large network of stations deployed and managed by the China Earthquake Administration. The diurnal variations in the geoelectric field waveforms were similar in the quiet magnetic periods when K<5 (generally,K<3 indicates a quiet time). The arrival time points of the maxima in the geoelectric field waveforms exhibited differences in local time related to geographic longitude. The amplitude of diurnal variation was several to 16.6 mV/km and decreased with increasing latitude. Further, the amplitude of diurnal variation, which was related to seasonal changes, was larger in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. The periods of diurnal changes during quiet days were 24, 12, 8, 6, 4 hours and several minutes over large areas. Finally, the observed diurnal variations in geoelectric field prior to the Alxa ZuoqiMS5.8 earthquake on 15 April 2015 were studied, and pronounced changes in the spectral values of the geoelectric fields were found to be associated with the Alxa Zuoqi earthquake in Inner Mongolia.
The Varotsos-Alexopoulos-Nomicos (VAN) method of short-term earthquake prediction was introduced in the 1980s. The VAN method enables estimation of the epicenter, magnitude and occurrence time of an impending earthquake by observing transient changes of the electric field of the Earth termed seismic electric signals (SES). Here, we present a few examples of SES observed in various earthquake prone areas worldwide.