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A profile of shallow crustal velocity structure (1–2 km) may greatly enhance interpretation of the sedimentary environment and shallow tectonic deformation. Recent advances in surface wave tomography, using ambient noise data recorded with high-density seismic arrays, have improved the understanding of regional crustal structure. As the interest in detailed shallow crustal structure imaging has increased, dense seismic array methods have become increasingly efficient. This study used a high-density seismic array deployed in the Xinjiang Basin in southeastern China, to record seismic data, which was then processed with the ambient noise tomography method. The high-density seismic array contained 203 short-period seismometers, spaced at short intervals (~ 400 m). The array collected continuous records of ambient noise for 33 days. Data preprocessing, cross correlation calculation, and Rayleigh surface wave phase-velocity dispersion curve extraction, yielded more than 16,000 Rayleigh surface wave phase-velocity dispersion curves, which were then analyzed using the direct-inversion method. Checkerboard tests indicate that the shear wave velocity is recovered in the study area, at depths of 0–1.4 km, with a lateral image resolution of ~ 400 m. Model test results show that the seismic array effectively images a 50 m thick slab at a depth of 0–300 m, a 150 m thick anomalous body at a depth of 300–600 m, and a 400 m thick anomalous body at a depth of 0.6–1.4 km. The shear wave velocity profile reveals features very similar to those detected by a deep seismic reflection profile across the study area. This demonstrates that analysis of shallow crustal velocity structure provides high-resolution imaging of crustal features. Thus, ambient noise tomography with a high-density seismic array may play an important role in imaging shallow crustal structure.
The Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 had over 8500 fatalities and was the most destructive earthquake in Nepal since the Bihar-Nepal earthquake in 1934. In this study, we imaged the rupture process of this Nepal event by back-projecting the teleseismic P-wave energy recorded at the three regional networks in Alaska, Australia and Europe. The back-projection images of the three subarrays revealed that the Nepal earthquake propagated along the strike in a southeast direction over a distance of ~ 160-170 km with the duration of ~ 50-55 s. The rupture process was found to be a simple, unilateral event with a near constant velocity of 3.3 km/s. The beam power was mainly distributed in the geographic region just north of Kathmandu and the peak intensity for the source time function curve occurred at about 30 s. The earthquake was destructive due to its occurrence at shallow depth (~ 12-15 km) and the fact that the capital lies in a basin of soft sediment. Additionally, the resonance effect for the longer period waves that occurred in the Kathmandu valley led to destructive aggravation, impacting mainly the taller buildings.
The Xing’an Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) and the northern margin of North China Craton (NCC) have undergone multistage tectonic superimposition and the tectonic evolution is extremely complicated. We collect the teleseismic data of 44 temporary broadband seismic stations deployed in the XMOB and the northern margin of NCC to calculate the P wave receiver functions. The crustal thickness and average crustal ratio as well as the Poisson’s ratios beneath 33 stations are estimated using the H-κ stacking method. The results show: (1) The crustal thickness of the study area ranges from 38.7 to 42.7 km, with an average thickness of 41.2 km. There is a great difference in crustal thickness on both sides of Solonker suture zone. The characteristics of crustal thickness support the geodynamic model that the Paleo-Asian Ocean subducted and closed at the Solonker suture zone. (2) The Poisson’s ratios in the study area are low, ranging from 0.215 to 0.277, with an average value of 0.243, suggesting that the rock composition of the area is dominated by felsic-acid rocks. (3) There exists a negative correlation between the Poisson’s ratio and the crustal thickness. Combined with the lower values of Poisson’s ratio, we speculate that the delamination is the major mechanism in crustal extension and thinning in the study area.